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PostSubject: Nuclear engineering   Sun Jul 01, 2012 3:06 pm

Nuclear engineering is the branch of [Only admins are allowed to see this link] concerned with the application of the breakdown ([Only admins are allowed to see this link]) as well as the [Only admins are allowed to see this link] of [Only admins are allowed to see this link] and/or the application of other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of [Only admins are allowed to see this link]. In the sub-field of nuclear fission, it particularly includes the interaction and maintenance of systems and components like [Only admins are allowed to see this link], [Only admins are allowed to see this link], and/or [Only admins are allowed to see this link]. The field also includes the study of [Only admins are allowed to see this link] and other applications of (generally [Only admins are allowed to see this link]) [Only admins are allowed to see this link], [Only admins are allowed to see this link], [Only admins are allowed to see this link] transport, [Only admins are allowed to see this link] and/or other related technology (e.g., [Only admins are allowed to see this link] disposal), and the problems of [Only admins are allowed to see this link].[Only admins are allowed to see this link]


Nuclear fission


[Only admins are allowed to see this link] is the disintegration of a susceptible ([Only admins are allowed to see this link])
atom's nucleus into two different, smaller elements and other particles
including neutrons. Approximately 2.7 neutrons are released per
fission, which may cause additional fissions if enough fissionable
material is present. Nuclear fission is made by separating one atom or
combining two different atoms.

The common types of nuclear fission include thermal fission, which is fission caused by the absorption of a relatively slow [Only admins are allowed to see this link] with kinetic energy approximately 0.125 [Only admins are allowed to see this link].
Fast fission is fission caused by the absorption of a more energetic
neutron, with kinetic energy on the order of MeV. Also, in especially
heavy nuclei, [Only admins are allowed to see this link]
may occur. Nuclei that are fissionable by neutrons typically carry at
least a very small chance of spontaneous fission occurring.

Generally, thermal fission is used in commercial reactors, though [Only admins are allowed to see this link] have been developed to harness fast fission.

The United States gets about 19 % of its electricity from nuclear power.[Only admins are allowed to see this link] Nuclear engineers in this field generally work, directly or indirectly, in the nuclear power industry or for [Only admins are allowed to see this link]. Current research in the industry is directed at producing economical, [Only admins are allowed to see this link]-resistant
reactor designs with passive safety features. Although government labs
research the same areas as industry, they also study a myriad of other
issues such as [Only admins are allowed to see this link] and nuclear fuel cycles, [Only admins are allowed to see this link], and [Only admins are allowed to see this link] and maintenance. A principal pipeline for trained personnel for US reactor facilities is the Navy Nuclear Power Program.





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    Nuclear Powerplant





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    B-61 thermonuclear weapon



Nuclear medicine and medical physics


An important field is [Only admins are allowed to see this link], and its subfields [Only admins are allowed to see this link], [Only admins are allowed to see this link], [Only admins are allowed to see this link], and [Only admins are allowed to see this link].[Only admins are allowed to see this link] From [Only admins are allowed to see this link] to [Only admins are allowed to see this link] to [Only admins are allowed to see this link],
among many others, medical physics provides most of modern medicine's
diagnostic capability along with providing many treatment options.





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    X-Ray Image of a male skull





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    Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of a head





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    PET taken with an ECAT Exact HR+ PET Scanner



Nuclear materials and nuclear fuels


Nuclear materials research focuses on two main subject areas, [Only admins are allowed to see this link]
and irradiation-induced modification of materials. Improvement of three
nuclear fuels is crucial for obtaining increased efficiency from
nuclear reactors. Irradiation effects studies have many purposes, from
studying structural changes to reactor components to studying [Only admins are allowed to see this link] of metals using [Only admins are allowed to see this link] or [Only admins are allowed to see this link].





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    [Only admins are allowed to see this link], the principal raw material of nuclear fuel





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    [Only admins are allowed to see this link] pellets





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    A [Only admins are allowed to see this link]



Radiation measurements and dosimetry


Nuclear engineers and radiological scientists are interested in the
development of more advanced ionizing radiation measurement and
detection systems, and using these to improve imaging technologies. This
includes detector design, fabrication and analysis, measurements of
fundamental atomic and nuclear parameters, and radiation imaging
systems, among other things.





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    A modern [Only admins are allowed to see this link]





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    A [Only admins are allowed to see this link]





  • [Only admins are allowed to see this link]


    [Only admins are allowed to see this link] next to [Only admins are allowed to see this link]



Nuclear engineering organizations



  • [Only admins are allowed to see this link]
  • [Only admins are allowed to see this link] (UK)
  • [Only admins are allowed to see this link]

[Only admins are allowed to see this link]
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